Five Religious, Social and Political Topics that Brought the World into Deadlock
(Adam and Evolution, Knowledge of God and Trinity, Transcendence and Equality of Reli-gions, the Intact Preservations of Torah and the Bible, Universal Nature of Religious Parables) Anonymity or misunderstanding of these five issues divides the people, making them enemies.
Adam and Evolution
The evolution is a scientific reality today. In addition to the layer of the brain and DNA thou-sands of geological and paleontological evidence for evolution can be observed today. This means that the story of Adam is not an issue that happened at the beginning of history. So Adam, as a concept of archetypes, is an expression of all humanity's collective personality. It is an expression describing all features of the whole of humanity with the elderly and children, with men and women. In this case, every sentence of the story of Adam in scriptures becomes the expression of sociological and anthropological laws. It becomes a scientific miracle of reli-gion. Otherwise as a history it would disturb the people of science as a superstition. As a result, the non-believing people of science would have a legitimate excuse that can save them in eternal life.
Indeed, humanity is not an ordinary animal species. Adamness (Being Adam/Âdemiyet) is a miraculous expression of religion that articulates the humanity in the best way. This indicates that science has not reached to the level of religious truths yet. When it is read from this per-spective, both the Torah and the Qur'an expresses the reality of Adam by indicating universal archetypal identity. In both texts this abstract archetypal identity of humanity and all relevant points are expressed in a concrete manner by using metaphors. I have discussed about this issue in details in 10 of my articles and my books on Torah, Gospel, and Qur’an.
Existence struggled for a few billion years and shook off to become concrete and to produce abstract meanings. Finally, it gave birth to the biologic life to produce liveliness and abstract sentiments. Eventually, this biologic life period, going through flux and reflux for a few hundred million years produced the human being.
In these last 100,000 years, human beings did not change a lot physiologically. But 15 to 30 thousand years ago mankind entered the Ademiyet or “concept of Adam” era. Especially, after the last Ice Age, that is, within the last 10,000 years. In a hadith, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) says: “Adam came down from the Ice Mountain.” (The History of Tabari). This, 10,000 years old humanity, had four noteworthy sons before reaching to the time of divine religions.
- Abel (agrarian and nomad generations)
- Cain (city-dwelling and settled generations)
- Seth (the generations that have spirituality and sainthood. “Seth” etymologically means “the generation that possesses extraordinary qualities, wonders )
- Enoch (The generations of science and knowledge. “Enoch” means “very wise person”, also called “Hermes” in western languages.)
“Enoch” the brother of Noah beautifully symbolizes science being the brother of prophethood. Old Testament, at the beginning of Genesis 5:1, says “This is the book of the generations of Adam,” and with that, it shows a universal miracle in the form of sociological and anthropological determinations. It indirectly describes the concept of “urbanized people” with the name of Cain, “Bronze and Iron” with the name of Tubal-Cain, “Nomadism” with the name of Jabal, “Faith and spirituality” with the name of Seth, “Science Age” with the name of Enoch. These associations are there to understand for those who try to see. Yes, these four concepts (i.e. siblings) of humanity have come under different kinds of names, idols, and figures throughout history. And it is interesting to note that, Enoch, a grandson of Adam, is the son of Seth. It implies that “Science” (i.e. Enoch) is a phenomenon that came about only after humanity became spiritual (i.e. Seth) and, started to understand abstract concepts.
A Few Notes in Regards to Prophet Mohammed’s Personality (A Response to Pope Benedict XVI)
1. As evident through tens of verses in the Quran, and hundreds of verses in the Bible, religion is the logo [the reason, mind and soul] of existence. Existence subsists and is put into order with religion. However, as required by the universal dialectics [the interaction of conflicting ideas, forces etc] the soul and the mind form ‘two wings’. According to time and place, one of these wings may be preferred over the other. Generally however, both wings are used together, for dialectics and its ‘unity’ [i.e. the interaction and unity of opposites] is what’s essential.
For example, while Moses represents matter, government, and law, Aaron represents sainthood, the Sufi orders [tasawwuf], and spirituality. All Jewish tariqah’s are based on Aaron, not on Moses. Although in the Quran it is Moses who shows miracles to the Pharaoh, in the Torah, we see that it is Aaron. This is because matter and meaning [soul] have united in Islam, Moses became like Aaron. In Judaism however, these two have remained separate from each other, hence, it was Aaron who showed the miracles. Just like in Islam, the seek-ers and saints of the spiritual paths show many instances of wonder working but the scholars of law do not. This is not a contradiction; rather it is a reflection of reality.
For example, while Mohammed together with his Ahmadiyyat preserved matter, the government, the law and the Sharia [Islamic laws] Ali and the collective personality of the spiritual companions carried out spirituality, tasawwuf, abstention [from worldly affairs] and taqwa [awareness of God]. It is no wonder why all the Islamic tariqah’s are founded on Ali and why the Alevi Muslims exalt him so much. Prophet Mohammed told Ali: O Ali! Whatever Aaron’s relation is to Moses; that is what your relation is to me.
The main cause of atheism and materialism (i.e. worthlessness), which are the biggest problems in the world, are the people of religion or the theists. The reason is that the theists, especially in this century, do not understand the Unity of Existence, the tawhid belief i.e. ‘oneness of God’ and its reality, the unity of the soul and the body or the physical and metaphysical unity and deny all this by opposing the Old and the New Testaments and the Quran completely.
However, all these three Holy Books together with the Holy Chinese and Indian texts explain the reality of unity and help those who understand it to comply with it.
Most of the theists of the past century, not comprehending this eternal, beautiful, scientific and contenting reality, stayed under the influence of Aristotelian theology − it was the scholars of these three religions not the books who were influenced − and believed in a Theo existing outside of the universe who is difficult to understand and quick to punish humans when frustrated. They also pushed the men of knowledge and philosophy in this direction. Esteemed people like Gazali proclaimed the religious scholars of law like Averroes and Avicenna as infidels and sometimes they even killed men of knowledge. To put it more accurately, while Averroes and Avicenna based their ideas on Aristotle’s ideas and philosophy of nature, Gazali and others established their beliefs on his theology.
On the contrary, some scientists who were not submissive became atheists, especially in this century, while others became materialists. There were also some others who accepted some of the social values and remained neutral about God. When economic circumstances and positive science supported this, the balance of the world was thrown off. The holy values were lost.
That is why the reputable paper Radikal wrote the following last year: “Islam, Christianity and Judaism are all theistic, which is known to be wrong. Now we must find a new religion and understanding.”
Yes, the unclear mentality of “the design of creation” shown as proof that some people are mahdi (antichrist) results from this wrong theism.
An Interview with Bahaeddin Saglam on Evolution and Adam
Q. As far as what I read from your book, you believe in evolution and think it goes along with religion?
Yes. The idea of Evolution is not in conflict with the belief in Creation of Species. Today evolution has gotten past the point of being considered merely a theory. It is a scientific subject, and it is compatible with holy scripts. I can show you the evidence with close to 200 scientific and religious statements to prove it. By employing evolution, God demonstrates the miraculously economic operation of his system, his art and his might. The universe was created to produce meaning, to make sense and this is only possible with evolution. Simply put, evolution means that nothing comes to being suddenly. Life unfolds slowly and this is its most important characteristic. If we look carefully at the evolution in creation we see that it is a program, a plan if you will. For instance an egg would not become a chick even if I hold it in the palm of my hand for 40 years; but, in the ecological system, which can be called a palm of God's hand”, 40 million chicks are born every second. Religious scholars should not confuse the two.
Q. But if it had been proven then it would not be called a “theory”. It is still just an unproven theory and hence the ongoing debate. Moreover, there are as many evidences against evolution as for evolution. It appears to be possible just as a “theory” in terms of logical or intellectual theory since it is not supported by proven facts. To accept this theory as it is now cannot be a scientific approach but may just be a belief.
In my opinion, evolution is as certain as “two times two equals four”. In order for something to come to being it needs to pass through the evolution process. No material thing is an exception to that rule. In addition, “Existence” is in need of a dialectic process. Progress and evolution result from the flux and motion of opposites. This is just a rule of the system. For instance there is nothing that sits idle; cells, atoms, nothing. According to evolution everything is constantly renewed.
For instance atom's plan comes from the infinite knowledge of God and its energy comes from the omnipotence of God (or might of God). Might, in a way, means energy. Atom's constant motion and progress comes from His Decree. Interestingly, religion's foundation is the Attribute of Decree and, with religion, humans were able to become Adam and perfected his evolution.
Therefore, we can say Ademiyet or “concept of Adam” is the sum of this progression and development process. While everything is at a continuous renewal and improvement state and while everything is constantly changing into something else, we must accept that all these are also true and valid for living things. Everything is slowly but surely evolving to perfection.
Those who oppose this are simply trying to protect their religious sentiments. Or they are psychologically ill or their political goals are in conflict with it. Today in the Islamic World we have a problem. We have over 2000 allegoric verses in Quran and they are not being interpreted by the support of science. As a result of this, old wives' tales enter the scene. Hence the Islamic World regresses on its evolutionary path. Yes, when the Islamic World appreciates science as she did in the first few hundred years of Islam then certainly she will awaken. Therefore we should connect religion and science with literature's help so that we can be true “Adam” and, get rid of anarchism and spiritual cannibalism.